fordert US-Präsident Reagan den Fall der Mauer und unterzeichnet den INF-Abrüstungs-Vertrag. Trotzdem gilt er bis heute vor allem als Kalter Krieger. Ronald Wilson Reagan war ein US-amerikanischer Schauspieler und republikanischer Politiker. Von 19war er der Gouverneur von Kalifornien; von 19der Präsident der Vereinigten Staaten. Am Samstag starb der ehemalige US-Präsident Ronald Reagan Der kalte Krieger mit dem heißen Herzen. Seite 4 von 4: In den 60er-Jahren drängte es Reagan.
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Ronald Wilson Reagan war ein US-amerikanischer Schauspieler und republikanischer Politiker. Von 19war er der Gouverneur von Kalifornien; von 19der Präsident der Vereinigten Staaten. Ronald Wilson Reagan [ˈreɪgən] (* 6. Februar in Tampico, Illinois; † 5. Juni in Bel Air, Los Angeles, Kalifornien) war ein US-amerikanischer. für Wirtschaft) bezeichnet die Wirtschaftspolitik der USA unter Präsident Ronald Reagan. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Theorie; 2 Steuerpolitik und Staatseinnahmen. 6. Februar: Ronald Wilson Reagan wird in Tampico/Bundesstaat Illinois als jüngstes von vier Kindern von John Edward Reagan und seiner Frau Nelle geboren. ) Reagan, W. Ronald (): “ Remarks and a Question - and - Answer Session With Writers for Hispanic, Religious, and Labor Publications. Ronald Reagan, Address to the Nation on Domestic Social Issues, 1. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency. Ronald Reagan war der Präsident der vereinigten Staaten. Seine berühmteste Rede hielt er in Berlin.
Ronald Reagan war der Präsident der vereinigten Staaten. Seine berühmteste Rede hielt er in Berlin. für Wirtschaft) bezeichnet die Wirtschaftspolitik der USA unter Präsident Ronald Reagan. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Theorie; 2 Steuerpolitik und Staatseinnahmen. Am Samstag starb der ehemalige US-Präsident Ronald Reagan Der kalte Krieger mit dem heißen Herzen. Seite 4 von 4: In den 60er-Jahren drängte es Reagan.
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Arhivat din original la 24 iunie Juli wurde er in Detroit , Michigan, zum offiziellen Kandidaten der Republikaner ernannt.
Reagan erwog, mit dem früheren Präsidenten Gerald Ford als Vizepräsidentschaftskandidaten Jimmy Carter herauszufordern. Nachdem Ford allerdings diese Erwägungen öffentlich gemacht hatte, entschied sich Reagan für George Bush als Vizepräsidentschaftskandidaten.
Es gelang Reagan, eine Koalition aus Evangelikalen , Wirtschaftsliberalen siehe Neoliberalismus und wertkonservativen Wählern zu schmieden. So eröffnete Reagan seinen Hauptwahlkampf am 3.
I believe we have distorted the balance of our government today by giving powers that were never intended to be given in the Constitution to the federal establishment.
Die Präsidentschaftswahl am 4. November gewann Reagan mit deutlicher Mehrheit gegen den glücklos amtierenden Präsidenten der Demokraten, Jimmy Carter.
Januar wurde Reagan als Präsident der Vereinigten Staaten vereidigt. Sein Amtsantritt löste in der Wirtschaft Optimismus aus.
Der Dollar und die Aktienkurse stiegen. Reagan verfolgte eine konsequent neoliberale Wirtschaftspolitik, senkte die Einkommensteuer bis Juli um 30 Prozent, erleichterte Industrieabschreibungen bei neuen Betriebsanlagen und trat im Ost-West-Konflikt als Hardliner auf; zudem gab er sich als Verfechter der Ideale der amerikanischen Familie, des Christentums und der Freiheit.
Bei der Präsidentschaftswahl kandidierte er erfolgreich für eine zweite Amtszeit. Er siegte mit deutlichem Vorsprung vor dem demokratischen Kandidaten Walter Mondale , der unter Carter das Amt des Vizepräsidenten bekleidet hatte.
Januar wurde er folglich erneut zum Präsidenten vereidigt. George Bush blieb Vizepräsident. März wurde Reagan bei einem Attentat verletzt.
Der geistig verwirrte Attentäter John Hinckley, Jr. Reagan kehrte am Hinckley wurde am September entlassen. Reagan wollte die Welt zu seinen Vorstellungen von Freiheit und Demokratie führen.
Er gab die Entspannungspolitik seiner republikanischen Vorgänger Nixon und Ford auf, da die massive Überlegenheit der Sowjetunion bezüglich konventioneller Waffensysteme nach seiner Auffassung die Wiederherstellung der gleichen militärischen Stärke der beiden damaligen Supermächte notwendig machte.
Bereits im Wahlkampf forderte er eine Erhöhung der Militärausgaben. Des Weiteren war Reagan entschlossen, in der Dritten Welt mit fast jedem Regime zusammenzuarbeiten, das von sich behauptete, Kommunisten zu bekämpfen s.
Kirkpatrick-Doktrin , was unter anderem zu einer konsequenten Unterstützung von antikommunistischen Militärdiktaturen führte. Diese führte einen schmutzigen Krieg gegen Aufständische und politische Gegner und ermordete dabei Anfang der er Jahre etwa Ein Teil der zusätzlichen Rüstungsausgaben floss in die sogenannte Strategic Defense Initiative SDI , die zu seiner Zeit nicht realisiert, jedoch auch unter seinen Nachfolgern fortgesetzt wurde.
Nachdem Reagan in seiner ersten Amtszeit eine neue Runde des Rüstungswettlaufs eingeläutet hatte, der die Sowjetunion aufgrund ihrer wirtschaftlichen Schwierigkeiten letztlich nicht mehr folgen konnte, startete er in seiner zweiten Amtszeit mehrere Abrüstungsinitiativen.
Die Beurteilung, in welchem Umfang die Reagansche Rüstungspolitik zum Ende des realen Sozialismus in Osteuropa beitrug, hängt vom erkenntnisleitenden Interesse der Forschenden ab.
Reagan wird dort bis heute von vielen verehrt. Mit der offiziellen Begründung, den kommunistischen Einfluss in Lateinamerika bekämpfen zu müssen, führte die Regierung Reagan über ihre gesamte Amtszeit hinweg einen verdeckten Krieg gegen die sandinistische Regierung in Nicaragua.
Die USA wurden am Im Jahr besetzten amerikanische Truppen mit der Begründung, einer kubanischen Intervention zuvorzukommen, die Karibik -Insel Grenada.
Zum Zeitpunkt der Invasion befanden sich nach Angaben der kubanischen Regierung Kubaner auf Grenada, die meisten davon Bauarbeiter, aber auch Ärzte, Krankenschwestern, Lehrer und 44 dem Militär zuzuordnende Personen.
Diese Angaben wurden von mehreren amerikanischen und britischen Journalisten bestätigt. Nach einer Woche endeten die Kämpfe mit dem Tod bzw.
Der UNO-Sicherheitsrat stimmte am August erlaubte sich Reagan während einer Mikrofonsprechprobe einen als makaber empfundenen Scherz, er habe die Bombardierung der Sowjetunion angeordnet.
Die Medien veröffentlichten diese nicht für die Öffentlichkeit bestimmte Tonprobe We begin bombing in five minutes , die weltweit zu heftiger Kritik führte.
Nachdem Reagan die Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Juni besucht hatte, war er anlässlich des Jahrestages des Kriegsendes erneut zu Gast in Deutschland.
Gorbachev, open this gate! Gorbachev, tear down this wall! Ende der er Jahre hatte sich die wirtschaftliche Situation der Vereinigten Staaten zunehmend verschlechtert.
Gleichzeitig stagnierte das wirtschaftliche Wachstum bei steigenden Arbeitslosenzahlen. Während die Regierungen von Nixon, Ford und Carter auf nachfrageorientierte Wirtschaftspolitik gesetzt hatten, vollzog Reagan einen Paradigmenwechsel hin zu einer angebotsorientierten Wirtschaftspolitik.
Durch eine solche angebotsorientierte Wirtschaftspolitik wird versucht, mithilfe besserer Produktions- und Wachstumsbedingungen die wirtschaftliche Situation nachhaltig zu stärken.
Diese Politik wurde auch als Reaganomics bezeichnet. Ein wichtiges Prinzip hinter Reagans Reformen war die Trickle-down-Theorie , welche davon ausgeht, dass Wohlstand in die unteren Gesellschaftsschichten durchsickert.
Danach sind Steuersenkungen für Unternehmen besonders wirtschaftsfördernd, da diese dann mehr investieren und so die Arbeitslosigkeit reduzieren, was letztlich sogar zu höheren Steuereinnahmen führe.
Anfang , d. Die Arbeitslosigkeit stieg auf zwölf Millionen Personen, Unternehmensgewinne gingen zurück.
Danach erholte sich die Wirtschaft , die Arbeitslosigkeit sank, und die Inflation wurde wieder eingedämmt. Trotzdem stieg das Haushaltsdefizit der Vereinigten Staaten an, vor allem durch die enormen Militärausgaben und die Steuernachlässe für Unternehmen und Kapitalerträge.
Finanzmittel für Sozialprogramme wie jene aus den Zeiten des New Deal oder der Great Society wurden unter Reagan daher drastisch gekürzt.
Sie blieb bis zum Jahr als Richterin am Supreme Court. Weitere Berufungen erfolgten an niedrigere Bundesgerichte. Wie kaum ein anderer verstand es Reagan als great Communicator ,  dass die Präsidentschaft auf der Kraft der Symbole beruhte und er neben der absoluten Macht auch immer die Hegemonie benötigte, um alle mitzunehmen.
Gerade seine Argumentation, dass Washington nicht die Lösung der Probleme darstelle, sondern Teil des Problems sei, verlangte nach starker Symbolik.
Amtseinführung spielen, um so symbolisch seinen Bezug zur freien , selbstorganisierten Jugend zu unterstreichen. Für die Präsidentschaftswahl war Reagan aufgrund des Im Wahlkampf schlug er seinen Vizepräsidenten George H.
Bush als Nachfolger vor, der die bisherige Politik weiterführen sollte. Raised in small-town Illinois, he became a Hollywood actor in his 20s and later served as the Republican governor of California from to Dubbed the Great Communicator, the affable Reagan became a popular two-term president.
He cut taxes, increased defense spending, negotiated a nuclear arms reduction agreement with the Soviets and is credited with helping to bring a quicker end to the Cold War.
In , Reagan graduated from Dixon High School, where he was an athlete and student body president and performed in school plays. During summer vacations, he worked as a lifeguard in Dixon.
Reagan went on to attend Eureka College in Illinois, where he played football, ran track, captained the swim team, served as student council president and acted in school productions.
After graduating in , he found work as a radio sports announcer in Iowa. Over the next three decades he appeared in more than 50 movies. In , Reagan married actress Jane Wyman , with whom he had daughter Maureen and an adopted son, Michael The couple divorced in In , he married actress Nancy Davis The pair had two children, Patricia and Ronald During World War II , Reagan was disqualified from combat duty due to poor eyesight and spent his time in the Army making training films.
In his younger years, Ronald Reagan was a member of the Democratic Party and campaigned for Democratic candidates; however, his views grew more conservative over time, and in the early s he officially became a Republican.
In , Reagan stepped into the national political spotlight when he gave a well-received televised speech for Republican presidential candidate Barry Goldwater , a prominent conservative.
Reagan was reelected to a second term in Reagan won the election by an electoral margin of and captured almost 51 percent of the popular vote.
At age 69, he was the oldest person elected to the U. Ronald Reagan was sworn into office on January 20, The first lady wore designer fashions, hosted numerous state dinners and oversaw a major redecoration of the White House.
Just over two months after his inauguration, on March 30, , Reagan survived an assassination attempt by John Hinckley Jr. He also advocated for increases in military spending, reductions in certain social programs and measures to deregulate business.
Critics maintained that his policies led to budget deficits and a more significant national debt; some also held that his economic programs favored the rich.
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He recalled the time when his college football team was staying at a local hotel which would not allow two black teammates to stay there, and he invited them to his parents' home 15 miles 24 kilometers away in Dixon.
His mother invited them to stay overnight and have breakfast the next morning. Reagan attended Dixon High School , where he developed interests in acting, sports, and storytelling.
Over six years, Reagan performed 77 rescues. He was an indifferent student, majored in economics and sociology and graduated with a C grade.
He was a member of the football team and captain of the swim team. He was elected student body president and participated in student protests against the college president.
After graduating from Eureka in , Reagan took jobs in Iowa as a radio announcer at several stations. His specialty was creating play-by-play accounts of games using only basic descriptions that the station received by wire as the games were in progress.
While traveling with the Cubs in California in , Reagan took a screen test that led to a seven-year contract with Warner Bros.
He earned his first screen credit with a starring role in the movie Love Is on the Air , and by the end of , he had already appeared in 19 films,  including Dark Victory with Bette Davis and Humphrey Bogart.
Reagan played his favorite acting role in 's Kings Row ,  where he plays a double amputee who recites the line "Where's the rest of me?
Early in , he was ordered to military active duty in San Francisco and never became a true film star. Throughout his film career, Reagan's mother answered much of his fan mail.
On April 18, , Reagan was ordered to active duty for the first time. Due to his poor eyesight, he was classified for limited service only, which excluded him from serving overseas.
In January , Reagan was ordered to temporary duty in New York City to participate in the opening of the Sixth War Loan Drive , which campaigned for the purchase of war bonds.
He was separated from active duty on December 9, , as an Army captain. After World War II, he resumed service and became third vice president in He was subsequently re-elected six times, in , , , , and Congress continued to investigate domestic political subversion.
Also during his tenure, Reagan was instrumental in securing residuals for television actors when their episodes were re-run, and later, for motion picture actors when their studio films aired on TV.
There has been a small group within the Screen Actors Guild which has consistently opposed the policy of the guild board and officers of the guild At times they have attempted to be a disruptive influence I have heard different discussions and some of them tagged as Communists I found myself misled into being a sponsor on another occasion for a function that was held under the auspices of the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee.
The first time that this word "Communist" was ever injected into any of the meetings concerning the strike was at a meeting in Chicago with Mr.
William Hutchinson, president of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners , who were on strike at the time.
He asked the Screen Actors Guild to submit terms to Mr. Walsh, for Walsh to give in the settling of this strike, and he told us to tell Mr.
Walsh that if he would give in on these terms he in turn would run this Sorrell and the other Commies out—I am quoting him—and break it up.
However, Reagan also opposed measures soon to manifest in the Mundt—Nixon Bill in May by opining:. As a citizen I would hesitate, or not like, to see any political party outlawed on the basis of its political ideology I detest, I abhor their philosophy, but I detest more than that their tactics, which are those of the fifth column, and are dishonest, but at the same time I never as a citizen want to see our country become urged, by either fear or resentment of this group, that we ever compromise with any of our democratic principles through that fear or resentment.
Further, when asked whether he was aware of Communist efforts within the Screen Writers Guild , Reagan would not play along, saying, "Sir, like the other gentlemen, I must say that that is hearsay.
Reagan landed fewer film roles in the late s and moved into television. The show ran for ten seasons from to , which increased Reagan's national profile.
They announced their engagement at the Chicago Theatre  and married on January 26, , at the Wee Kirk o' the Heather church in Glendale , California.
Reagan met actress Nancy Davis —   in after she contacted him in his capacity as president of the Screen Actors Guild.
He helped her with issues regarding her name appearing on a Communist blacklist in Hollywood. She had been mistaken for another Nancy Davis.
She described their meeting by saying, "I don't know if it was exactly love at first sight, but it was pretty close. They had two children: Patti b.
The couple's relationship was close, authentic and intimate. They never stopped courting. We were very much in love and still are.
When I say my life began with Ronnie, well, it's true. It did. I can't imagine life without him. Reagan began as a Hollywood Democrat , and Franklin D.
Roosevelt was "a true hero" to him. In his early political career, he joined numerous political committees with a left-wing orientation, such as the American Veterans Committee.
He fought against Republican-sponsored right-to-work legislation and supported Helen Gahagan Douglas in when she was defeated for the Senate by Richard Nixon.
It was his realization that Communists were a powerful backstage influence in those groups that led him to rally his friends against them.
At rallies, Reagan frequently spoke with a strong ideological dimension. In December , he was stopped from leading an anti-nuclear rally in Hollywood by pressure from the Warner Bros.
He would later make nuclear weapons a key point of his presidency when he specifically stated his opposition to mutual assured destruction.
Reagan also built on previous efforts to limit the spread of nuclear weapons. Truman and appeared on stage with him during a campaign speech in Los Angeles.
Eisenhower and and Richard Nixon He also traveled across the country to give motivational speeches to over , GE employees.
His many speeches—which he wrote himself—were non-partisan but carried a conservative, pro-business message; he was influenced by Lemuel Boulware , a senior GE executive.
Boulware, known for his tough stance against unions and his innovative strategies to win over workers, championed the core tenets of modern American conservatism: free markets , anticommunism , lower taxes, and limited government.
The party left me. When the legislation that would become Medicare was introduced in , he created a recording for the American Medical Association AMA warning that such legislation would mean the end of freedom in America.
Reagan said that if his listeners did not write letters to prevent it, "we will awake to find that we have socialism. And if you don't do this, and if I don't do it, one of these days, you and I are going to spend our sunset years telling our children, and our children's children, what it once was like in America when men were free.
Reagan gained national attention in his speeches for conservative presidential contender Barry Goldwater in He consolidated themes that he had developed in his talks for GE to deliver his famous speech, " A Time for Choosing ":.
The Founding Fathers knew a government can't control the economy without controlling people. And they knew when a government sets out to do that, it must use force and coercion to achieve its purpose.
So we have come to a time for choosing You and I are told we must choose between a left or right, but I suggest there is no such thing as a left or right.
There is only an up or down. Up to man's age-old dream—the maximum of individual freedom consistent with order—or down to the ant heap of totalitarianism.
This "A Time for Choosing" speech was not enough to turn around the faltering Goldwater campaign, but it was the crucial event that established Reagan's national political visibility.
David Broder of The Washington Post called it, "the most successful national political debut since William Jennings Bryan electrified the Democratic convention with his Cross of Gold speech.
California Republicans were impressed with Reagan's political views and charisma after his "Time for Choosing" speech,  and in late he announced his campaign for governor in the election.
In Reagan's campaign, he emphasized two main themes: "to send the welfare bums back to work," and, in reference to burgeoning anti-war and anti-establishment student protests at the University of California, Berkeley , "to clean up the mess at Berkeley.
Reagan was sworn in on January 2, In his first term, he froze government hiring and approved tax hikes to balance the budget.
Shortly after assuming office, Reagan tested the presidential waters as part of a "Stop Nixon" movement, hoping to cut into Nixon's southern support  and become a compromise candidate  if neither Nixon nor second-place candidate Nelson Rockefeller received enough delegates to win on the first ballot at the Republican convention.
However, by the time of the convention, Nixon had delegate votes, 25 more than he needed to secure the nomination, followed by Rockefeller with Reagan in third place.
Reagan was involved in several high-profile conflicts with the protest movements of the era, including his public criticism of university administrators for tolerating student demonstrations at the Berkeley campus.
On May 15, , during the People's Park protests at the university's campus the original purpose of which was to discuss the Arab—Israeli conflict , Reagan sent the California Highway Patrol and other officers to quell the protests.
This led to an incident that became known as "Bloody Thursday," resulting in the death of student James Rector and the blinding of carpenter Alan Blanchard.
Reagan then called out 2, state National Guard troops to occupy the city of Berkeley for two weeks to crack down on the protesters.
No more appeasement. Early in , the national debate on abortion was starting to gain traction. In the early stages of the debate, Democratic California state senator Anthony Beilenson introduced the Therapeutic Abortion Act in an effort to reduce the number of "back-room abortions" performed in California.
After he recognized what he called the "consequences" of the bill, he announced that he was anti-abortion. In , Reagan signed the Mulford Act , which repealed a law allowing the public carrying of loaded firearms becoming California Penal Code and c.
The bill, which was named after Republican assemblyman Don Mulford , garnered national attention after the Black Panthers marched bearing arms upon the California State Capitol to protest it.
Despite an unsuccessful attempt to force a recall election on Reagan in ,  he was re-elected governor in , defeating Jesse M.
He chose not to seek a third term in the following election cycle. One of Reagan's greatest frustrations in office was the controversy of capital punishment , which he strongly supported.
Anderson decision, which invalidated all death sentences issued in California before , though the decision was later overturned by a constitutional amendment.
The only execution during Reagan's governorship was on April 12, , when Aaron Mitchell 's sentence was carried out by the state in San Quentin 's gas chamber.
In , Reagan signed the Family Law Act, which was an amalgam of two bills that had been written and revised by the California State Legislature over more than two years.
Reagan's terms as governor helped to shape the policies he would pursue in his later political career as president. By campaigning on a platform of sending "the welfare bums back to work," he spoke out against the idea of the welfare state.
He also strongly advocated the Republican ideal of less government regulation of the economy, including that of undue federal taxation.
Reagan's campaign relied on a strategy crafted by campaign manager John Sears of winning a few primaries early to damage the inevitability of Ford's likely nomination.
Reagan won North Carolina, Texas, and California, but the strategy failed, as  he ended up losing New Hampshire, Florida, and his native Illinois.
Much of the credit for that victory came from the work of three co-chairmen, including Ernest Angelo, the mayor of Midland , and Ray Barnhart of Houston , whom Reagan as president would appoint in as director of the Federal Highway Administration.
However, as the GOP convention neared, Ford appeared close to victory. Acknowledging his party's moderate wing, Reagan chose moderate senator Richard Schweiker of Pennsylvania as his running mate if nominated.
Nonetheless, Ford prevailed with 1, delegates to Reagan's 1, Reagan's concession speech emphasized the dangers of nuclear war and the threat posed by the Soviet Union.
Though he lost the nomination, he received write-in votes in New Hampshire, votes as an independent on Wyoming's ballot, and a single electoral vote from a faithless elector in the November election from the state of Washington.
After the campaign, Reagan remained in the public debate with the Ronald Reagan Radio Commentary series  and his political action committee, Citizens for the Republic , which was later revived in Alexandria, Virginia , in by the Reagan biographer Craig Shirley.
The presidential election featured Reagan against incumbent president Jimmy Carter and was conducted amid a multitude of domestic concerns as well as the ongoing Iran hostage crisis.
Reagan's campaign stressed some of his fundamental principles: lower taxes to stimulate the economy,  less government interference in people's lives,  states' rights ,  and a strong national defense.
Reagan launched his campaign with an indictment of a federal government that he believed had "overspent, overstimulated, and overregulated.
Bush , to be his running mate. His relaxed and confident appearance during the televised Reagan—Carter debate on October 28 boosted his popularity and helped to widen his lead in the polls.
On November 4, Reagan won a decisive victory over Carter, carrying 44 states and receiving electoral votes to Carter's 49 in six states plus D.
He also won the popular vote, receiving Anderson garnering 6. Republicans also won a majority of seats in the Senate for the first time since , though Democrats retained a majority in the House of Representatives.
During his presidency, Reagan pursued policies that reflected his personal belief in individual freedom, brought economic changes, expanded the military and contributed to the end of the Cold War.
The diaries were published in May in the bestselling book The Reagan Diaries. Reagan was 69 years old when he was sworn into office for his first term on January 20, In his inaugural address, he addressed the country's economic malaise, arguing: "In this present crisis, government is not the solution to our problems; government is the problem.
Reagan campaigned vigorously to restore organized prayer to the schools, first as a moment of prayer and later as a moment of silence.
Vitale that had prohibited state officials from composing an official state prayer and requiring that it be recited in the public schools.
No person shall be required by the United States or by any state to participate in prayer. Although "close to death" upon arrival at George Washington University Hospital , Reagan was stabilized in the emergency room, then underwent emergency exploratory surgery.
In August , PATCO , the union of federal air traffic controllers, went on strike , violating a federal law prohibiting government unions from striking.
During Jimmy Carter's last year in office , inflation averaged Reagan implemented neoliberal policies based on supply-side economics , advocating a laissez-faire philosophy and free-market fiscal policy,  seeking to stimulate the economy with large, across-the-board tax cuts.
Gold Commission to study how one could be implemented. Citing the economic theories of Arthur Laffer , Reagan promoted the proposed tax cuts as potentially stimulating the economy enough to expand the tax base, offsetting the revenue loss due to reduced rates of taxation, a theory that entered political discussion as the Laffer curve.
Reaganomics was the subject of debate with supporters pointing to improvements in certain key economic indicators as evidence of success, and critics pointing to large increases in federal budget deficits and the national debt.
During Reagan's presidency, federal income tax rates were lowered significantly with the signing of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of ,  which lowered the top marginal tax bracket from 70 percent to 50 percent over three years as part of a "5—10—10" plan ,  and the lowest bracket from 14 percent to 11 percent.
Other tax increases passed by Congress and signed by Reagan ensured, however, that tax revenues over his two terms were The top rate was dropped to 28 percent, but capital gains taxes were increased on those with the highest incomes from 20 percent to 28 percent.
The increase of the lowest tax bracket from 11 percent to 15 percent was more than offset by the expansion of personal exemption, standard deduction , and earned income tax credit.
The net result was the removal of six million poor Americans from the income tax roll and a reduction of income tax liability at all income levels.
The net effect of all Reagan-era tax bills was a 1 percent decrease in government revenues when compared to Treasury Department revenue estimates from the Administration's first post-enactment January budgets.
Reagan's policies proposed that economic growth would occur when marginal tax rates were low enough to spur investment, which would then lead to higher employment and wages.
Critics labeled this " trickle-down economics "—the belief that tax policies that benefit the wealthy will create a "trickle-down" effect reaching the poor.
Clinton's tax increase. Reagan was opposed to government intervention, and he cut the budgets of non-military  programs  including Medicaid , food stamps , federal education programs  and the EPA.
The administration's stance toward the savings and loan industry contributed to the savings and loan crisis. A minority of the critics of Reaganomics also suggested that the policies partially influenced the stock market crash of ,  but there is no consensus regarding a single source for the crash.
Reagan ended the price controls on domestic oil that had contributed to the energy crises of —74 and the summer of Bush, reneged on his campaign promise and resorted to raising taxes.
During Reagan's presidency, a program was initiated within the United States Intelligence Community to ensure America's economic strength.
The program, Project Socrates , developed and demonstrated the means required for the United States to generate and lead the next evolutionary leap in technology acquisition and utilization for a competitive advantage—automated innovation.
To ensure that the United States acquired the maximum benefit from automated innovation, Reagan, during his second term, had an executive order drafted to create a new federal agency to implement the Project Socrates results on a nationwide basis.
However, Reagan's term came to an end before the executive order could be coordinated and signed, and the incoming Bush administration, labeling Project Socrates as "industrial policy," had it terminated.
The Reagan administration was often criticized for inadequately enforcing, if not actively undermining, civil rights legislation.
Reagan had argued that the legislation infringed on states' rights and the rights of churches and business owners. It hurt the Soviet economy, but it also caused ill will among American allies in Europe who counted on that revenue.
Reagan retreated on this issue. In , journalist Nicholas Lemann interviewed Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger and summarized the strategy of the Reagan administration to roll back the Soviet Union:.
Their society is economically weak, and it lacks the wealth, education, and technology to enter the information age. They have thrown everything into military production, and their society is starting to show terrible stress as a result.
They can't sustain military production the way we can. Eventually it will break them, and then there will be just one superpower in a safe world—if, only if, we can keep spending.
Lemann noted that when he wrote that in , he thought the Reaganites were living in a fantasy world. But by , Lemann stated that the passage represents "a fairly uncontroversial description of what Reagan actually did.
Reagan and the United Kingdom's prime minister Margaret Thatcher both denounced the Soviet Union in ideological terms. After Soviet fighters downed Korean Air Lines Flight near Moneron Island on September 1, , carrying people, including Georgia congressman Larry McDonald , Reagan labeled the act a "massacre" and declared that the Soviets had turned "against the world and the moral precepts which guide human relations among people everywhere.
Under a policy that came to be known as the Reagan Doctrine , Reagan and his administration also provided overt and covert aid to anti-communist resistance movements in an effort to " rollback " Soviet-backed communist governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
They were instrumental in training, equipping and leading Mujahideen forces against the Soviet Army. In one instance, in , this practice enabled the government to identify and purge communists from its ministries and to virtually eliminate the pro-Soviet infrastructure in Iran.
In March , Reagan introduced the Strategic Defense Initiative , a defense project  that would have used ground- and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles.
Though supported by leading American conservatives who argued that Reagan's foreign policy strategy was essential to protecting U. Reagan had said that Montt was getting a "bum rap,"  and described him as "a man of great personal integrity.
Although unsuccessful with that, the administration was successful in providing nonmilitary assistance such as USAID.
The American peacekeeping forces in Beirut , a part of a multinational force during the Lebanese Civil War , were attacked on October 23, The Beirut barracks bombing killed American servicemen and wounded more than 60 others by a suicide truck bomber.
He then withdrew all the Marines from Lebanon. On October 25, , Reagan ordered U. George's University as adequate reasons to invade.
Operation Urgent Fury was the first major military operation conducted by U. Reagan accepted the Republican nomination in the Republican convention in Dallas, Texas.
He proclaimed that it was " morning again in America ," regarding the recovering economy and the dominating performance by the American athletes at the Summer Olympics on home soil, among other things.
Reagan's opponent in the presidential election was former vice president Walter Mondale. Following a weak performance in the first presidential debate, Reagan's ability to perform the duties of president for another term was questioned.
His confused and forgetful behavior was evident to his supporters; they had previously known him to be clever and witty.
Rumors began to circulate that Reagan had Alzheimer's disease. I am not going to exploit, for political purposes, my opponent's youth and inexperience".
This remark generated applause and laughter, even from Mondale himself. That November, Reagan won a landslide re-election victory, carrying 49 of the 50 states.
Mondale won only his home state of Minnesota and the District of Columbia. Roosevelt 's victory over Alf Landon , in which he won His popular vote margin of victory—nearly Reagan was sworn in as president for the second time on January 20, , in a private ceremony at the White House.
To date, at 73 years of age, he is the oldest person to take the presidential oath of office. Because January 20 fell on a Sunday, a public celebration was not held but took place in the Capitol rotunda the following day.
January 21 was one of the coldest days on record in Washington, D. In response to concerns about the increasing crack epidemic , Reagan began the war on drugs campaign in , a policy led by the federal government to reduce the illegal drug trade.
Though Nixon had previously declared war on drugs, Reagan advocated more aggressive policies. Arno, the Reagan administration largely ignored the AIDS crisis , which began to unfold in the United States in , the same year Reagan took office.
By the time President Reagan gave his first prepared speech on the epidemic, six years into his presidency, 36, Americans had been diagnosed with AIDS, and 20, had died of it.
From the late s onward, the American public grew increasingly vocal in its opposition to the apartheid policy of the white- minority government of South Africa , and in its insistence that the U.
He also noted the fact that the "American-owned industries there employ more than 80, blacks" and that their employment practices were "very different from the normal South African customs".
As an alternative strategy for opposing apartheid, the Reagan Administration developed a policy of constructive engagement with the South African government as a means of encouraging it to move away from apartheid gradually.
It was part of a larger initiative designed to foster peaceful economic development and political change throughout southern Africa.
Reagan vetoed the act, but the veto was overridden by Congress. Afterward, Reagan reiterated that his administration and "all America" opposed apartheid, and said, "the debate Stating that there was "irrefutable proof" that Libya had directed the "terrorist bombing," Reagan authorized the use of force against the country.
In the late evening of April 15, , the United States launched a series of airstrikes on ground targets in Libya. British prime minister, Margaret Thatcher , allowed the U.
Air Force to use Britain's air bases to launch the attack, on the justification that the UK was supporting America's right to self-defense under Article 51 of the United Nations Charter.
Reagan signed the Immigration Reform and Control Act in The act made it illegal to knowingly hire or recruit illegal immigrants , required employers to attest to their employees' immigration status, and granted amnesty to approximately three million illegal immigrants who entered the United States before January 1, , and had lived in the country continuously.
Upon signing the act at a ceremony held beside the newly refurbished Statue of Liberty , Reagan said, "The legalization provisions in this act will go far to improve the lives of a class of individuals who now must hide in the shadows, without access to many of the benefits of a free and open society.
Very soon, many of these men and women will be able to step into the sunlight and, ultimately, if they choose, they may become Americans.
It will remove the incentive for illegal immigration by eliminating the job opportunities which draw illegal aliens here. In , the Iran—Contra affair became a problem for the administration stemming from the use of proceeds from covert arms sales to Iran during the Iran—Iraq War to fund the Contra rebels fighting against the government in Nicaragua , which had been specifically outlawed by an act of Congress.
President Reagan professed that he was unaware of the plot's existence. He opened his own investigation and appointed two Republicans and one Democrat, John Tower , Brent Scowcroft and Edmund Muskie , respectively, to investigate the scandal.
The commission could not find direct evidence that Reagan had prior knowledge of the program, but criticized him heavily for his disengagement from managing his staff, making the diversion of funds possible.
Many Central Americans criticize Reagan for his support of the Contras, calling him an anti-communist zealot, blinded to human rights abuses, while others say he "saved Central America.
In , near the end of the Iran—Iraq War, the U. The incident further worsened already tense Iran—United States relations. Until the early s, the United States had relied on the qualitative superiority of its weapons to essentially frighten the Soviets, but the gap had been narrowed.
At the same time, oil prices in fell to one third of the previous level; oil was the primary source of Soviet export revenues.
These factors contributed to a stagnant Soviet economy during Gorbachev 's tenure. Meanwhile, Reagan escalated the rhetoric.
In his famous speech to religious fundamentalists, he outlined his strategy for victory. First, he labeled the Soviet system an " Evil Empire " and a failure—its demise would be a godsend for the world.
Second, Reagan explained his strategy was an arms buildup that would leave the Soviets far behind, with no choice but to negotiate arms reduction.
Finally, displaying his characteristic optimism, he praised liberal democracy and promised that such a system eventually would triumph over Soviet communism.
Reagan appreciated the revolutionary change in the direction of the Soviet policy with Mikhail Gorbachev , and shifted to diplomacy, intending to encourage the Soviet leader to pursue substantial arms agreements.
To the astonishment of the world, and the chagrin of Reagan's most conservative supporters, they agreed to abolish all nuclear weapons.
Gorbachev then asked the end of SDI. Reagan said no, claiming that it was defensive only, and that he would share the secrets with the Soviets.
No deal was achieved. Speaking at the Berlin Wall on June 12, , Reagan challenged Gorbachev to go further, saying "General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization, come here to this gate!
Gorbachev, open this gate! Gorbachev, tear down this wall! When Reagan visited Moscow for the fourth summit in , he was viewed as a celebrity by the Soviets.
A journalist asked the president if he still considered the Soviet Union the evil empire. Early in his presidency, Reagan started wearing a custom-made, technologically advanced hearing aid , first in his right ear  and later in his left ear as well.
On July 13, , Reagan underwent surgery at Bethesda Naval Hospital to remove cancerous polyps from his colon. He relinquished presidential power to the vice president for eight hours in a similar procedure as outlined in the 25th Amendment , which he specifically avoided invoking.
In January , Reagan underwent surgery for an enlarged prostate that caused further worries about his health.
No cancerous growths were found, and he was not sedated during the operation. On January 7, , Reagan underwent surgery at Walter Reed Army Medical Center to repair a Dupuytren's contracture of the ring finger of his left hand.
The surgery lasted for more than three hours and was performed under regional anesthesia. During the presidential campaign, Reagan pledged that he would appoint the first female Supreme Court Justice if given the opportunity.
In his second term, Reagan had three opportunities to fill a Supreme Court vacancy. When Chief Justice Warren E. Burger retired in September , Reagan nominated incumbent Associate Justice William Rehnquist to succeed Burger as Chief Justice the appointment of an incumbent associate justice as chief justice is subject to a separate confirmation process.
Then, following Rehnquist's confirmation, the president named Antonin Scalia to fill the consequent associate justice vacancy. Powell Jr.
Reagan initially chose Conservative jurist Robert Bork to succeed Powell. Bork's nomination was strongly opposed by civil and women's rights groups, and by Senate Democrats.
However, before his name was submitted to the Senate, Ginsburg withdrew himself from consideration. Along with his four Supreme Court appointments, Reagan appointed 83 judges to the United States courts of appeals , and judges to the United States district courts.
Early in his presidency, Reagan appointed Clarence M. Pendleton Jr. Pendleton tried to steer the commission into a conservative direction in line with Reagan's views on social and civil rights policy during his tenure from until his sudden death in Pendleton soon aroused the ire of many civil rights advocates and feminists when he ridiculed the comparable worth proposal as being " Looney Tunes ".
On April 13, , Reagan was assaulted by an anti-nuclear protester during a luncheon speech while accepting an award from the National Association of Broadcasters in Las Vegas.
Flying shards of glass hit Reagan, but he was not injured. Using media credentials, Springer intended to announce government plans for an underground nuclear weapons test in the Nevada desert the following day.
Following his arrest on assault charges, a Secret Service spokesman could not explain how Springer got past the federal agents who guarded Reagan's life at all times.
He pled guilty to a misdemeanor federal charge of interfering with the Secret Service, but other felony charges of assault and resisting officers were dropped.
They regularly attended Bel Air Church  and occasionally made appearances on behalf of the Republican Party; Reagan delivered a well-received speech at the Republican National Convention.
Five presidents and six first ladies attended the dedication ceremonies, marking the first time that five presidents were gathered in the same location.
In August , at the age of 83, Reagan was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease ,  an incurable neurological disorder which destroys brain cells and ultimately causes death.
I have recently been told that I am one of the millions of Americans who will be afflicted with Alzheimer's Disease At the moment I feel just fine.
I intend to live the remainder of the years God gives me on this earth doing the things I have always done I now begin the journey that will lead me into the sunset of my life.
I know that for America there will always be a bright dawn ahead. Thank you, my friends. May God always bless you. After his diagnosis, letters of support from well-wishers poured into his California home.
How are things in your city? Stahl came close to reporting that Reagan was senile, but at the end of the meeting, he had regained his alertness. Lawrence Altman of The New York Times noted that "the line between mere forgetfulness and the beginning of Alzheimer's can be fuzzy", and all four of Reagan's White House doctors said that they saw no evidence of Alzheimer's while he was president.
Hutton, who served from to , said the president "absolutely" did not "show any signs of dementia or Alzheimer's". Reagan did experience occasional memory lapses, though, especially with names.
For example, Reagan repeated a toast to Margaret Thatcher, with identical words and gestures, at his 82nd-birthday party on February 6, Reagan suffered an episode of head trauma in July , five years before his diagnosis.
After being thrown from a horse in Mexico, a subdural hematoma was found and surgically treated later in the year. As the years went on, the disease slowly destroyed Reagan's mental capacity.
Reagan suffered a fall at his Bel Air home on January 13, , resulting in a broken hip. She told CNN's Larry King in that very few visitors were allowed to see her husband because she felt that "Ronnie would want people to remember him as he was.
Reagan died of pneumonia , complicated by Alzheimer's disease,  at his home in the Bel Air district of Los Angeles, California , on the afternoon of June 5, We appreciate everyone's prayers.
Bush called Reagan's death "a sad hour in the life of America". Reagan's body was taken to the Kingsley and Gates Funeral Home in Santa Monica, California , where well-wishers paid tribute by laying flowers and American flags in the grass.
Reagan's body lay in repose in the Library lobby until June 9; over , people viewed the coffin. Capitol ;  in thirty-four hours, , people filed past the coffin.
Bush and President George W. After the funeral, the Reagan entourage was flown back to the Ronald W. He was also the first U. Reagan's burial site is inscribed with the words he delivered at the opening of the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library: "I know in my heart that man is good, that what is right will always eventually triumph and that there is purpose and worth to each and every life.
Since Reagan left office in , substantial debate has occurred among scholars, historians, and the general public surrounding his legacy.
Opinions of Reagan's legacy among the country's leading policymakers and journalists differ as well.
Edwin Feulner , president of The Heritage Foundation , said that Reagan "helped create a safer, freer world" and said of his economic policies: "He took an America suffering from 'malaise' Despite the continuing debate surrounding his legacy, many conservative and liberal scholars agree that Reagan has been the most influential president since Franklin D.
Roosevelt , leaving his imprint on American politics, diplomacy, culture, and economics through his effective communication and pragmatic compromising.
Heale, who finds that scholars now concur that Reagan rehabilitated conservatism, turned the nation to the right, practiced a considerably pragmatic conservatism that balanced ideology and the constraints of politics, revived faith in the presidency and American exceptionalism , and contributed to victory in the Cold War.
He ranked number nine in international relations. Reagan's major achievement was the end of the Cold War as he left office.
Furthermore, the USSR and Soviet-sponsored Communist movements worldwide were falling apart—and collapsed completely three years after he left office.
The U. His admirers say he won the Cold War. In , the Kremlin lost control of all its East European satellites. The resulting states were no threat to the United States.
Reagan's exact role is debated, with many believing that Reagan's defense policies, economic policies, military policies and hard-line rhetoric against the Soviet Union and Communism—together with his summits with General Secretary Gorbachev—played a significant part in ending the Cold War.
The Soviet economy couldn't endure such competition. Knopf observes that being labeled "evil" probably made no difference to the Soviets but gave encouragement to the East-European citizens opposed to communism.
General Secretary Gorbachev said of his former rival's Cold War role: "[He was] a man who was instrumental in bringing about the end of the Cold War,"  and deemed him "a great president.
Truman 's policy of containment is also regarded as a force behind the fall of the USSR, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan undermined the Soviet system itself.
Reagan reshaped the Republican party, led the modern conservative movement , and altered the political dynamic of the United States.
After leaving office, Reagan became an iconic influence within the Republican Party. The period of American history most dominated by Reagan and his policies that concerned taxes, welfare, defense, the federal judiciary and the Cold War is known today as the Reagan Era.
This time period emphasized that the conservative "Reagan Revolution," led by Reagan, had a permanent impact on the United States in domestic and foreign policy.
Bush administration. According to columnist Chuck Raasch, "Reagan transformed the American presidency in ways that only a few have been able to.
Reagan's popularity has increased since When Reagan left office in , a CBS poll indicated that he held an approval rating of 68 percent.
This figure equaled the approval rating of Franklin D. Roosevelt and was later matched by Bill Clinton , as the highest rating for a departing president in the modern era.
The survey of leading historians rated Reagan number 11 in In , the Institute for the Study of the Americas released the first-ever British academic survey to rate U.
This poll of British specialists in U. Reagan's ability to talk about substantive issues with understandable terms and to focus on mainstream American concerns earned him the laudatory moniker "The Great Communicator.
But I never thought it was my style that made a difference—it was the content. I wasn't a great communicator, but I communicated great things.
Reagan also earned the nickname "the Teflon President," in that public perceptions of him were not tarnished by the controversies that arose during his administration.
Public reaction to Reagan was always mixed. He was the oldest president up to that time and was supported by young voters, who began an alliance that shifted many of them to the Republican Party.
Knute Rockne, All American. George "The Gipper" Gipp. Tugboat Annie Sails Again. La Piste de Santa Fe. George Armstrong Custer. The Bad Man. International Squadron.
Nine Lives Are Not Enough. Drake McHugh [ f ]. Mister Gardenia Jones. Gardenia Jones [ ]. Narrateur [ g ]. Cadet Classification.
The Rear Gunner [ ]. Lieutenant Ames [ ]. Target Tokyo. Narrateur [ ] , [ ]. John Loves Mary. Le Dernier Voyage. The Big Truth.
The Last Outpost. Grover Cleveland Alexander. Tropic Zone. Quand la poudre parle. Prisoner of War. La Reine de la prairie. Le Bagarreur du Tennessee.
Hellcats of the Navy. Commander Casey Abbott [ h ]. Les Blouses blanches. Heritage of Splendor. Nash Airflyte Theatre. Medallion Theatre. The Revlon Mirror Theater.
Lux Video Theatre. Schlitz Playhouse of Stars. The Ford Television Theatre. General Electric Theater. James Buchanan D Abraham Lincoln R Andrew Johnson D Ulysses Simpson Grant R Rutherford Birchard Hayes R James Abram Garfield R Chester Alan Arthur R Grover Cleveland D Benjamin Harrison R William McKinley R Theodore Roosevelt R William Howard Taft R Woodrow Wilson D Warren G.
Harding R Calvin Coolidge R Herbert Clark Hoover R Franklin D. Roosevelt D Harry Truman D Dwight David Eisenhower R John F. Kennedy D Lyndon B.
Johnson D Richard Milhous Nixon R Gerald Rudolph Ford R